What Did Messiah Endure to
Sacrifice Himself for Our Sins?

In A Physician Testifies About the Crucifixion, by Dr. C. Truman Davis, we are given a physician's account of the excruciating death of our Savior, which seems to be one of the most physiologically accurate I have ever read, which, I thought to share with you.

For purposes of accuracy, certain names and titles have been changed: Jesus, Christ, Gospel, God, & Lord are now Yah'shua, Messiah, Evangel, YAHWEH & Sovereign. Text by Dr. Davis is generally in Times/Black while other text is generally in Arial/Blue.


A Physican Testifies About The Crucifixion

About a decade ago, reading Jim Bishop's The Day Christ Died, I realized that I had for years taken the Impalement more or less for granted -- that I had grown callous to its horror by a too easy familiarity with the grim details and a too distant friendship with our Sovereign. It finally occurred to me that, though a physician, I didn't even know the actual immediate cause of death. The Evangel writers don't help us much on this point, because crucifixion and scourging were so common during their lifetime that they apparently considered a detailed description unnecessary. So we have only the concise words of the Evangelists: "Pilate, having scourged Yah'shua, delivered Him to them to be crucified -- and they crucified Him."

I have no competence to discuss the infinite psychic and spiritual suffering of the Incarnate YAHWEH atoning for the sins of fallen man. But it seemed to me that as a physician I might pursue the physiological and anatomical aspects of our Sovereign's passionate some detail. What did the body of Yah'shua of Nazareth actually endure during those hours of torture?

Apparently, the first known practice of crucifixion was by the Persians. Alexander and his generals brought it back to the Mediterranean world -- to Egypt and to Carthage. The Romans apparently learned the practice from the Carthaginians and (as with almost everything the Romans did) rapidly developed a very high degree of efficiency and skill at it. A number of Roman authors (Livy, Cicer, Tacitus) comment on crucifixion, and several innovations, modifications, and variations are described in the ancient literature.

For instance, the upright portion of the cross (or stipes) could have the cross-arm (or patibulum) attached two or three feet below its top in what we commonly think of as the Latin cross. The most common form used in our Sovereign's day, however, was the Tau cross, shaped like our T. In this cross the patibulum was placed in a notch at the top of the stipes.

Without any historical or biblical proof Medieval and Renaissance painters have given us our picture of Messiah carrying the entire cross. But the upright post, or stipes, was generally fixed permanently in the ground at the site of execution and the condemned man was forced to carry the patibulum, weighing about 110 pounds, from the prison to the place of execution.

A titulus, or small sign, stating the victim's crime was usually placed on a staff, carried at the front of the procession from the prison, and later nailed to the cross so that it extended above the head. This sign with its staff nailed to the top of the cross would have given it somewhat the characteristic form of the Latin cross.

Many of the painters and most of the sculptors of crucifixion, also show the nails through the palms. Historical Roman accounts and experimental work have established that the nails were driven between the small bones of the wrists (radial and ulna) and not through the palms. Nails driven through the palms will strip out between the fingers when made to support the weight of the human body. The misconception may have come about through a misunderstanding of Yah'shua' words to Thomas, "Observe my hands." Anatomists, both modern and ancient, have always considered the wrist as part of the hand.

But, of course, the physical passion of the Messiah began in Gethsemane. Of the many aspects of this initial suffering, the one of greatest physiological interest is the bloody sweat. It is interesting that St. Luke, the physician, is the only one to mention this. He says, "And being in Agony, He prayed the longer. And His sweat became as drops of blood, trickling down upon the ground."

Every ruse (trick) imaginable has been used by modern scholars to explain away this description, apparently under the mistaken impression that this just doesn't happen. A great deal of effort could have been saved had the doubters consulted the medical literature. Though very rare, the phenomenon of Hematidrosis, or bloody sweat, is well documented. Under great emotional stress of the kind our Sovereign suffered, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can break, thus mixing blood with sweat. This process might well have produced marked weakness and possible shock.

After the arrest in the middle of the night, Yah'shua was next brought before the Sanhedrin and Caiphus, the High Priest; it is here that the first physical trauma was inflicted. A soldier struck Yah'shua across the face for remaining silent when questioned by Caiphus. The palace guards then blind-folded Him and mockingly taunted Him to identify them as they each passed by, spat upon Him, and struck Him in the face.

The beating by the Palace Guard was like having several husky battle-hardened soldiers viciously beating the head, leaving considerable damage to the nose, mouth and eyes. With the nose probably broken, the lips lacerated, and the eyes bruised, cut and swelling, it would have been difficult to breathe or see anything clearly.

In the early morning, battered and bruised, dehydrated, and exhausted from a sleepless night, Yah'shua is taken across the Praetorium of the Fortress Antonia, the seat of government of the Procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate. You are, of course, familiar with Pilate's action in attempting to pass responsibility to Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch of Judea. Yah'shua apparently suffered no physical mistreatment at the hands of Herod and was returned to Pilate. It was in response to the cries of the mob, that Pilate ordered Bar-Abbas released and condemned Yah'shua to scourging and crucifixion.

There is much disagreement among authorities about the unusual scourging as a prelude to crucifixion. Most Roman writers from this period do not associate the two. Many scholars believe that Pilate originally ordered Yah'shua scourged as his full punishment and that the death sentence by Impalement came only in response to the taunt by the mob that the Procurator was not properly defending Caesar against this pretender who allegedly claimed to be the King of the Jews.

Preparations for the scourging were carried out when the Prisoner was stripped of His clothing and His hands tied to a post above His head. It is doubtful the Romans would have made any attempt to follow the Jewish law in this matter, but the Jews had an ancient law prohibiting more than forty lashes.

The Roman legionnaire steps forward with the flagrum (or flagellum) in his hand. This is a short whip consisting of several heavy, leather thongs with two small balls of lead attached near the ends of each. The heavy whip is brought down with full force again and again across Yah'shua' shoulders, back, and legs. At first the thongs cut through the skin only. Then, as the blows continue, they cut deeper into the subcutaneous tissues, producing first an oozing of blood from the capillaries and veins of the skin, and finally spurting arterial bleeding from vessels in the underlying muscles.

The small balls of lead first produce large, deep bruises which are broken open by subsequent blows. Finally the skin of the back is hanging in long ribbons and the entire area is an unrecognizable mass of torn, bleeding tissue. When it is determined by the centurion in charge that the prisoner is near death, the beating is finally stopped.

In addition, the Roman scourge often had bits of jagged metal imbedded to enhance the flaying of flesh and deeper tissue as the deadly straps wrapped around the body of the tortured victim. This was more likely to occur in those provinces or districts of Roman occupation where there was a higher degree of civil unrest to serve as a vivid reminder against opposing Roman authority. And Judea certainly qualified!

The half-fainting Yah'shua is then untied and allowed to slump to the stone pavement, wet with His own blood. The Roman soldiers see a great joke in this provincial Jew claiming to be king. They throw a robe across His shoulders and place a stick in His hand for a scepter. They still need a crown to make their travesty complete. Flexible branches covered with long thorns (commonly used in bundles for firewood) are plaited into the shape of a crown and this is pressed into His scalp. Again there is copious bleeding, the scalp being one of the most vascular areas of the body.

After mocking Him and striking Him across the face, the soldiers take the stick from His hand and strike Him across the head, driving the thorns deeper into His scalp. Finally, they tire of their sadistic sport and the robe is torn from His back. Already having adhered to the clots of blood and serum in the wounds, its removal causes excruciating pain just as in the careless removal of a surgical bandage, and almost as though He were again being whipped the wounds once more begin to bleed.

In deference to Jewish custom, the Romans return His garments. The heavy patibulum ... is tied across His shoulders, and the procession of the condemned Messiah, two thieves, and the execution detail of Roman soldiers headed by a centurion begins its slow journey along the Via Dolorosa. In spite of His efforts to walk erect, the weight of the heavy wooden beam, together with the shock produced by copious blood loss, is too much. He stumbles and falls. The rough wood of the beam gouges into the lacerated skin and muscles of the shoulders. He tries to rise, but human muscles have been pushed beyond their endurance.

The centurion, anxious to get on with the crucifixion, selects a stalwart North African onlooker, Simon of Cyrene, to carry the cross. Yah'shua follows, still bleeding and sweating the cold, clammy sweat of shock, until the 650 yard journey from the fortress Antonia to Golgotha is finally completed.

Yah'shua is offered wine mixed with myrrh, a mild analgesic mixture. He refuses to drink. Simon is ordered to place the patibulum/stauros on the ground and Yah'shua quickly thrown backward with His shoulders against the wood. The legionnaire feels for the depression at the front of the wrist. He drives a heavy, square, wrought-iron nail through the wrist and deep into the wood. Quickly, he moves to the other side and repeats the action being careful not to pull the arms to tightly, but to allow some flexion and movement. The patibulum is then lifted in place... and the titulus reading "Yah'shua of Nazareth, King of the Jews" is nailed in place.

The left foot is now pressed backward against the right foot, and with both feet extended, toes down, a nail is driven through the arch of each, leaving the knees moderately flexed. The Victim is now crucified. As He slowly sags down with more weight on the nails in the wrists excruciating pain shoots along the fingers and up the arms to explode in the brain -- the nails in the writs are putting pressure on the median nerves. As He pushes Himself upward to avoid this stretching torment, He places His full weight on the nail through His feet. Again there is the searing agony of the nail tearing through the nerves between the metatarsal bones of the feet.

At this point, as the arms fatigue, great waves of cramps sweep over the muscles, knotting them in deep, relentless, throbbing pain. With these cramps comes the inability to push Himself upward. Hanging by his arms, the pectoral muscles are paralyzed and the intercostal muscles are unable to act. Air can be drawn into the lungs, but cannot be exhaled. Yah'shua fights to raise Himself in order to get even one short breath. Finally, carbon dioxide builds up in the lungs and in the blood stream and the cramps partially subside. Spasmodically, he is able to push Himself upward to exhale and bring in the life-giving oxygen. It was undoubtedly during these periods that He uttered the seven short sentences recorded:

The first, looking down at the Roman soldiers throwing dice for His seamless garment, "Father, forgive them for they know not what they do."

The second, to the penitent thief, "Today thou shalt be with me in Paradise."

The third, looking down at the terrified, grief-stricken adolescent John -- the beloved Apostle -- he said, "Behold thy mother." Then, looking to His mother Mary, "Woman behold thy son."

The fourth cry is from the beginning of the 22nd Psalm, "My El, my El, why has thou forsaken me?"

Hours of limitless pain, cycles of twisting, joint-rending cramps, intermittent partial asphyxiation, searing pain where tissue is torn from His lacerated back as He moves up and down against the rough timber. Then another agony begins...A terrible crushing pain deep in the chest as the pericardium slowly fills with serum and begins to compress the heart.

One remembers again the 22nd Psalm, the 14th verse: "I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint; my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels."

It is now almost over. The loss of tissue fluids has reached a critical level; the compressed heart is struggling to pump heavy, thick, sluggish blood into the tissue; the tortured lungs are making a frantic effort to gasp in small gulps of air. The markedly dehydrated tissues send their flood of stimuli to the brain.

Yah'shua gasps His fifth cry, "I thirst."

One remembers another verse from the prophetic 22nd Psalm: "My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou has brought me into the dust of death."

A sponge soaked in posca, the cheap, sour wine which is the staple drink of the Roman legionaries, is lifted to His lips. He apparently doesn't take any of the liquid. The body of Yah'shua is now in extremes, and He can feel the chill of death creeping through His tissues. This realization brings out His sixth words, possibly little more than a tortured whisper, "It is finished."

His mission of atonement has completed. Finally He can allow his body to die.

With one last surge of strength, he once again presses His torn feet against the nail, straightens His legs, takes a deeper breath, and utters His seventh and last cry, "Father! Into thy hands I commit my spirit."

The rest you know. In order that the Sabbath not be profaned, the Jews asked that the condemned men be dispatched and removed from the (tree - 1stPe2:24). The common method of ending a crucifixion was by crurifracture, the breaking of the bones of the legs. This prevented the victim from pushing himself upward; thus the tension could not be relieved from the muscles of the chest and rapid suffocation occurred. The legs of the two thieves were broken, but when the soldiers came to Yah'shua they saw that this was unnecessary.

Apparently to make doubly sure of death, the legionnaire drove his lance through the fifth interspace between the ribs, upward through the pericardium and into the heart. The 34th verse of the 19th chapter of the Evangel according to St. John reports: "And immediately there came out blood and water." That is, there was an escape of water fluid from the sac surrounding the heart, giving postmortem evidence that Our Sovereign died not the usual crucifixion death by suffocation, but of heart failure (a broken heart) due to shock and constriction of the heart by fluid in the pericardium.

Thus we have had our glimpse -- including the medical evidence -- of that epitome of evil which man has exhibited toward Man and toward YHWH. It has been a terrible sight, and more than enough to leave us despondent and depressed. How grateful we can be that we have the great sequel in the infinite mercy of YHWH toward man -- at once the miracle of the atonement (at one ment) and the expectation of the triumphant ... resurrection.























patibulum of the cross?

There certainly IS biblical proof of what our Sovereign and Savior was nailed upon, and it wasn't an upright pole! A major misconception is the tradition of an upright cross planted on a barren hillside. Tradition says that the instrument of impalement was a "cross", from the Latin crux, but is this supported by the scriptures? Let's investigate. "Patibulum" is Latin, and therefore not in the original text. Throughout the scriptures the term "stauros" is used.

What is a stauros?

4716 stauro,j stauros {stow-ros'} from the base of 2476; TDNT - 7:572,1071; n m AV - cross 28; 28 1) an upright stake, esp. a pointed one 2) a cross 2a) a well known instrument of most cruel and ignominious punishment, borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians; to it were affixed among the Romans, down to the time of Constantine the Great, the guiltiest criminals, particularly the basest slaves, robbers, the authors and abetters of insurrections, and occasionally in the provinces, at the arbitrary pleasure of the governors, upright and peaceable men also, and even Roman citizens themselves 2b) the crucifixion which Christ underwent

This does not, however, conclusively prove that it was either an upright stake or a beam fastened to an upright stake. There is no question that the object that Yah'shua carried and was finally nailed to was a stauros, or beam of wood.

But why is there no mention of another supporting beam? Either Yah'shua was nailed in a totally vertical position to a single beam with his wrists fastened directly overhead by a single nail, or with His arms outstreached to prevent extending breathing. Which way is it?

An important clue

In the evangel of John, chapter 20 & verse 25 we read this:

The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Sovereign. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.

The word translated nails is haylon, and is the plural of haylos. [h[lwn noun gen masc pl , from h-loj, ou m nail - f/Mss.UBS4-NA27] The Greek reads: tu,pon tw/n h[lwn, literally, pattern those nails.

This indicates there were two nails, thus an extended horizontal position, however, if His arms were extended there would have had to been a second object to support an upright position. If Yah'shua was nailed to a stauros, a beam, Exactly what was that other object that the stauros fastened to? What does the biblical record state?

The common misconception is that each crucifixion was a separate empalement depicted by three separate stakes/crosses, which is a presumption of tradition and not of biblical record. This, however, presents a major problem of sequence.

First, we believe that Yah'shua was in the middle:

And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death: 33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left. (Lu 23: 32)

Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Yah'shua in the midst. (Jn 19:18)

But when it came time to break the legs of those being crucified there was a change in order where Yah'shua is no longer in the middle.

Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. But when they came to Yah'shua, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: (Jn 19: 32-33)

How did Yah'shua move from the middle to the end? Did the soldiers skip Yah'shua and come back to him to break his legs? Or did the soldier break the legs of each as he came to them? How is it that the soldiers came to the two criminals first, but to Yah'shua last?

The answer can be found in the fact that Yah'shua and the thieves were not on crosses, but on a tree in a garden!

Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. (Jn 19:41)

The Elohim of our fathers raised up YahwehShua, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree (xulon). (Act 5: 30)[Act 10:39;13:39; Gal 3:13)

Not only was Yah'shua crucified in a garden area, but the scriptures clearly show that He was impaled to a LIVING TREE!

Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree (xulon), that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed. (1 Pe 2:24)

"Tree" is defined in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance as: 3586 xu,lon xulon {xoo'-lon} from another form of the base of 3582; TDNT - 5:37,665; n n AV - tree 10, staff 5, wood 3, stocks 1; 19 1) wood 1a) that which is made of wood 1a1) as a beam from which any one is suspended, a gibbet, a cross 1a2) a log or timber with holes in which the feet, hands, neck of prisoners were inserted and fastened with thongs 1a3) a fetter, or shackle for the feet 1a4) a cudgel, stick, staff 2) a tree

However, this "xulon" was used of a LIVING tree!

For if they do these things in a green tree (xulon), what shall be done in the dry? (Lu 23:31)

"Green" is from the Greek word "hugros", meaning " full of sap - LIVING!

SECB: 5200 u`gro,j hugros {hoo-gros'} from the base of 5205;; adj AV - green 1; 1 1) damp, moist, wet 2) full of sap, green

Therefore, we see that the stauros, or beam, was fastened to a living tree rather than an upright post as tradition erroneously postulates.

Why should this be a living tree in the middle of a garden, rather than the more common artificial upright post? Because...it is particularly significant that the tree of life is a "xulon" in the midst of a (garden?) paradise...

He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the ekklesia; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree (xulon) of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of YAHWEH. (Rev 2:7)

In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree (xulon) of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. ...Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree (xulon) of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. (Rev 22:2,14)

Yah'shua was impaled in a garden on a living tree. Thus it was fitting that YahwehShua (His higher eternal name), Who is The Way, The Truth, and The Life, give up His life on a Tree in the midst of the garden so that mankind could partake of Him and His Tree of Life in the garden of paradise!

Solving the mystery - There can be no doubt that the upright object which Yah'shua was impaled to was a living tree (c.f. De 21:23). Since, however, there were three impalements to the living tree there would have been a circular "Y" configuration, forming a triangle r on the tree. This explains how Yah'shua could have been "in the midst" and "last" at the same time, which depended on the angle of approach from within the garden. Those who were in audience were in front of Yah'shua, therefore seeing him as being in the center. But the Roman soldiers were off to the side, and approaching from the side would bring the soldier to the first criminal, then walking around the back of the tree away from the crowd he would then come to the second criminal, then proceeding to the audience side of the tree he would finally come to Yah'shua!











Everyone assumes this was the regular weekly Sabbath, however the scriptural record indicates otherwise.

And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.

And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.

And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment. (Lu 23: 54-56)

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. (John 19:31)

The Sabbath mentioned as the "preparation" day was not the sixth day of the week as supposed, but rather the day before the first Annual Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Annual Sabbaths can occur on any day of the week, thus there are two Sabbaths mentioned, the 1st High Sabbath which always occurred on the 15th of Abib, as well as the weekly 7th day Sabbath. And it is the day before the first High Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread that is the preparation day for putting leavening out of the home.

Wednesday impalement on Abib 14th, the preparation day - Yah'shua was impaled on the 14th of Abib, a Wednesday, about the time of the morning sacrifice, or about 9:00 A.M., and finally dies about 3:00 P.M., or about the time of the evening sacrifice. Yah'shua was not allowed to remain on the tree because of the impending High Sabbath (Abib 15th) which began at sunset.

Thursday - Abib 15th High Sabbath - Beginning Wednesday at Sunset and lasting through Thursday at sunset-DAY 1.

Friday - Abib 16th Beginning Thursday at sunset and lasting through Friday at sunset. After that High Sabbath ended at sunset on Thursday, the women bought and prepared spices, probably during the daylight portion of Friday (Abib 16th) Since they did not have enough time to complete the anointing they were forced to stop working as sunset brought in the weekly Sabbath --DAY 2.

Saturday - Abib 16th - Sabbath Observed. The women now observed the weekly 7th day Sabbath which began at sunset Friday and lasting through sunset (Saturday-Abib 17th).

Thus Yah'shua was in the grave from sunset Wednesday through sunset Saturday, a full 72 hours - three days and three nights.

Now we are presented with a problem of the actual resurrection. Was it exactly three days and three nights as Yah'shua said?

First, we note that the two women came to the tomb early bringing the spices they prepared for burial, and that it was "very early".

KJV Matthew 28:1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.

Luke 24:1 Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.

KJV Mark 16:1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.

2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.

All indications are that they arrived close to sunrise on what would be our Sunday morning. Just how early were they? John fills in the details...

John 20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre....

This was BEFORE sunrise while it was still dark! And what did they find?

Mk 16:3-6 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?

And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.

And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.

And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Yah'shua of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.

Lu 24:2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.

3 And they entered in, and found not the body of the Sovereign Yah'shua.

John 20:1 ... and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre

Arriving BEFORE sunrise while it was yet dark they found that Yah'shua was not there. Of course he wasn't there, because He had already risen from the dead on the preceding sunset exactly three days and three nights later as He said!

But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:

For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. (Mt 12:39)

Three days and three nights is 72 hours! Why rely on tradition or elaborate arguments when the scriptures are so very clear? This is no small error when you consider that this single sign was THE ONLY authentic proof of Who He Was, and given by our Savior Himself!

Setting emotional sentiment aside, isn't it about time you ought to ask yourself if you have been deceived into worshiping another savior, an imposter, a counterfeit claiming to be the real Messiah but distorting factual truths. Would simply correcting the mistakes validate a fraudulent claim? Your eternity hangs in the balance, so choose wisely! Seek your heavenly Father with all your heart, mind and soul that you may be worthy to share in His blessings.


There certainly IS biblical proof! This is offered in detail as the narrative reaches the actual crucifixion.























An interesting dilemma: Suppose you had been present at the impalement of Yah'shua. Given the choice of deciding who to release, but not knowing all the facts of just what the two choices were, who would you, along with the crowd, choose: Yah'shua Son of the Panther, or Yah'shua Son of the Father? Surely the infamous miracle working Rabbi must be the Son of the Father, wouldn't you think? Would you join the crowd for demanding the release of Yah'shua, Son of the Father, and in sentencing the other Yah'shua, the illegitimate son of a Roman centurion accused of treason against the federal authorities, to death?

If you choose Son of the Father, you were wrong! The True Messiah was ridiculed as the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier!


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