Snake worship and astrology

The battle between good and evil has been waged from before mankind existed.

 

Serpens (pronounced /ˈsɝpənz/, Latin for "snake") is one of the 88 modern constellations, and was also one of the 48 listed by Ptolemy. Among the modern constellations it is unique in being split into two pieces, Serpens Caput (representing the head of the snake) to the west and Serpens Cauda (representing the tail) to the east. Between these two pieces lies the constellation of Ophiuchus, the serpent holder. [Wikipedia: see connections here]

This is the second part of the Ophiuchus- Serpens group. The Serpent is being grasped in the hands of Ophiuchus the Serpent Holder. Thus the constellation wraps around Ophiuchus, and is divided into two parts: Serpens Caput (the head) and Serpens Cauda (the tail). [http://www.dibonsmith.com/ser_con.htm]


Serpens is a very ancient constellation, and is always shown in the grasp of Ophiuchius. It was this serpent that revealed the secrets of healing the dead to Ophiuchius. The serpent is the symbol for the poison (venom) that can both cure and kill, Ophicuchius controls it and uses it to heal. [http://www.astronomical.org/portal/modules/wfsection/article.php?articleid=76]

Hydra is the longest constellation in the sky and is also the largest in terms of area. It is so long that it takes more than six hours to rise completely. Along its northern side, we can observe the zodiacal signs of Cancer, Leo, Virgo and Libra.

The stars in the serpent's head appear to be at the same distance but they are really very far away from each other. The northernmost of the six stars in the head of the serpent, Epsilon Hydrae, is a quintuple star - a system of five stars. Alphard (Arabic for "the solitary one") is Hydra's brightest star.

In Greek mythology, Hercules slew Hydra, a horrible serpent with many heads that grew back as soon as they were cut off. Killing the Hydra was one of Hercules' twelve labors, during which he also defeated Leo, the lion, and Draco, the dragon
[http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/Constellations/spring/hydra.html]

Text Box: And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which YAHWEH thy Elohim hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven. --Deuteronomy 4:19Serpens is the snake being grasped by Ophiuchus, the Snake-Handler, and is thus very closely associated with it. Both were listed as constellations by Ptolemy. Originally, Serpens and Ophiuchus were considered a single Snake-Holder constellation, out of which developed an associated myth of the founding of medicine. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpens]

In mythology, Ophiuchus was identified as the healer Asclepius, son of Apollo, although why he appears to be wrestling with a serpent in the sky is not fully explained. His connection with snakes is attributed to the story that he once killed a snake that was miraculously restored to life by a herb placed on it by another snake. Asclepius subsequently used the same technique to revive dead people. Snakes are the symbol of rebirth because they shed their skins every year. [http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/serpens.htm]

 

 

Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey,
his servants ye are to whom ye obey;
whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?
- Romans
6:16 -

 

 

The Cult of Aesculapias

The medical community bears the image of Aesculapian Staff.

Stanford University School of Medicine Shield
The triple redwood frond, along with the traditional Aesculpian staff and entwined serpent of medicine and linked squares prevalent in the medical center architecture, appear on the School of Medicine's flag and logo. The triple redwood frond represents Stanford University's role in the discovery, codification, and transmission of knowledge. The Aesculpian staff with serpent is an ancient Greek symbol of healing, and the interconnected squares indicate the predominant motif of the 1959 Edward Durrell Stone buildings at the heart of the medical center complex.
heidi, August 20, 2007 [http://lane.stanford.edu/howto/index.html?id=_53 -(11/24/07)]

The Doctor's Emblem

Ever since Asklepios' time, the medical profession has used a staff entwined by a snake as its special symbol. This is commonly called the Aesculpaian staff, after the god's Latin name. Modern scholars, however, doubt that the symbol originated in Greece. It probably derived from the Jews' imprisonment in Egypt and ther desert wanderings.

People in that region suffered from a type of worm known as Dracunculus medinensis. (These worms grow under the skin, particularly in the lower extremities. Whey they push out through the skin, blisters and infected sores often arise. Their toxins can also produce general reactions such as hives, nausea, vomiting and fever.) But a way was found to get rid of the worms, which could be up to a half a metre long. They were carefully rolled up on a little peg. This may be why the Jews considered the snake a sign of victory. The brazen serpent which God commanded Moses to make (Numbers 21 ) might have been a Dracunculus worm!
excerpted from The Illustrated History of Surgery, by Knut Haeger

 

It's about power!

 

Foucault (1975) explored the wider context of the medical institution and reported on how power is seen to be embedded within institutional frames. Foucault noted that in medicine, new medical techniques and practices alongside (definitive) classification of disease lead to a rendering of the body of a transparent object and, in turn, gave rise to the "clinical gaze". Doctors were seen to have privileged access to knowledge claims that allowed them to adopt a position of scientific objectivity that made resistance to their claims to knowledge difficult. The medical institution (the hospital structure, it's practices and knowledge bases) and doctors can be seen to share a structure of identification with each other which the patient does not share and which involves relations of power and domination.

The view that it is technical competence that places the doctor in power has been disputed however. Others (e.g. Freidson, 1983) claim instead that this authority and agency is based on the doctor's 'professional' authority. Doctors are viewed as agents or 'gatekeepers' to resources such as medicines and other treatment techniques. More recently Brody (1993) has described doctors as having three powers. The first, 'aesculpian power', is based on the possession of specialized knowledge and skills in practical application. The second, is 'charismatic power' and is based on interpersonal skills, and the third is 'social power' and is based on the social status of the doctor3. Together,'these powers are seen to contribute to power asymmetry by deifying the doctor.

A Discourse Analysis of the Nature of Shared Decision-Making in General Practice Consultations, Margaret E. Robertson, PhD Thesis in Health Service Research, University of Dundee, April 2004 [http://staff.stir.ac.uk/maggie.robertson/documents/PhD-Thesis-MR.pdf (11/24/07)]

Robertson's thesis highlights 'power' and 'domination' with 'aesculpian power' as a major principle. What does this mean? It means that the foundation of modern medicine has its roots in Greek mythology.

 

'The original, ancient Hippocratic Oath begins with the invocation "I swear | by Apollo the Physician and by Asclepius and by Hygieia and Panacea and by all the gods . . ." Scholars have written that this oath may not have been written by Hippocrates, but by or with others in his school, or followers of Pythagoras2.

The serpent, the perpetual symbol of Aesculapius, has given rise to the opinion, that the worship was derived from Egypt, and that Aesculapius was identical with the serpent Cnuph worshipped in Egypt, or with the Phoenician Eauiun, (Euseb. Praep. Evang. )

Aesculapius was worshipped al over Greece, and many towns, as we have seen claimed the honour of his birth. His temples were usually built in healthy places, on hills outside the town, and near wells which were believed to have healing powers. These temples were not only places of worship, but were frequented by great numbers of sick persons, and may therefore be compared to modern hospitals. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. p. 286, p.)

The principle seat of his worship in Grece was Epidaurus, where he had a temple surrounded with an extensive grove, within which no one was allowed to die, and no woman to give birth to a child. His sancturary contained a magnificent stature of ivory and gold, the work of Thrasymedes, in which he was represented as a handsome and manly figure, resembling that of Zeus. (Paus. ii. 26 and 27.) He was seated on a throne, holding in one hand a staff, and with the other resting upon the head of a dragon (serpent), and by his side lay a dog. (Paus. ii. 27. -2.) Serpents were everywhere connected with the worship of Aesculapius, probably because they were a symbol of prudence and renovation, and were believed to have the power of discovering herbs of wondrous powers, as is indicated in the story about Aesculapius and the serpents in the house of Glaucus. Serpents were further believed to be guardians of wells with salutary powers. For these reasons a peculiar kind of tema serpents, in which Epidaurus abounded, were not only kept in this temple (paus. ii. 28. -1), but the god himself frequently appeared in the form of a serpent. (Paus. iii. 23. -4; Val Max i. 8. -2; Liv. Epit. 11; compare the account of Alencander paeudomantia in Lucian.)"At Rome the worship of Aesculapius was introduced from Epidaurus at the command of the Delphic oracle or of the Sibylline books, in b.c. 293, for the purpose of averting a pestilence."

Text Box: Association of American Medical Colleges "The sick, who visited the temples of Aesculapius, had usually to spend one or more nights in his sanctuary..., during which they observed certain rules prescribed by the priests. The god then usually revealed the remedies for the disease in a dream. The various surnames given to the god partly describe him as the healing or saving god, and are partly derived from the places in which he was worshipped."

 

"The descendants of Aesculapius were called by the patronymic name Aeclepiadae. (askdhpadai) Those writers, who consider Aesculapius as a real personage, must regard the Asclepiadae as his real descendants, to whom he transmitted his medical knowledge, and whose principal seats were Cos and Cuidus. But the Asclepiadae were also regarded as an order or caste of priests, and for a long period the practice of medicine was intimately connected with religion. The knowledge of medicine was regarded as a sacred secret, which was transmitted from father to son in the families of the Asclepiadae, and we still possess the oath with every one was obliged to take when he was put in possession of the medial secrets.

The full text from Wikipedia ::

 

From MedicineNet.com

Definition of Aesculapius

Aesculapius: That stick with the snake curled around it is the staff (the rod) of Aesculapius (also called Asklepios), the ancient god of medicine. His Greek name was Asklepios and his Roman name Aesculapius.

In reality, Asklepios may have been a real person who was renowned for his gentle, humane remedies and his humane treatment of the mentally ill. His followers established temples called asclepions, temples of Asklepios, temples of healing. The greatest asklepion was in a grove of trees south of Corinth, Greece where the sick had to spend a night while the proper remedies were revealed during a dream to the priests of the temple and the cured had to make a suitable sacrifice (usually a rooster) to the god.

According to mythology, Asculapius had a number of children including Hygieia, the goddess of health (from whose name comes the word "hygiene") and Panaceia, the godess of healing (from whose name comes the word "panacea" for a universal remedy).

Today, the staff of Aesculapius is a commonly used symbol of medicine. It

Southern Medical Association

 
is the symbol of the American Medical Association (AMA) and many other medical societies.
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6985

"Gentle, humane remedies"? This is "good", isn't it? They say they don't

really worship Aesculapius or the serpent any more, just like Christians may

acknowledge the pagan source of Christmas, but remake it into a pleasant

Text Box: World Medical Association

idea, a celebration of what is good, because He knows our heart.

 

Romans 6:16 Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?

What then? shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? Yahweh forbid. Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness? -Romans 6:15-16

 

How can something be so beautiful be so bad? Let's just honor the good and the beautiful and not worry about the little things. Well how about this?

 

...Thus saith Adonay [Sovereign] YAHWEH; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
Thou hast been in Eden the garden of the MightyOne; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.
Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of the MightyOne; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.
Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, -Ezek 28:12-15

 

Why not honor this beautiful being of light? Because this little phrase missing:

"till iniquity was found in thee."

 

This is what people want to forget, because the appearance is preferable to the reality. Look at the good they do -look at how beautiful they are, etcetera. The religions of the world are no different, particularly those proclaiming the Bible as their basis of authority.

 

For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Messiah. And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also be transformed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works. -2Cor 11:13-15

 

Pharmaceuticals

 

Revelation 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries [pharmakia] were all nations deceived.

 

5331 farmakei,a pharmakeia {far-mak-i'-ah} from 5332;; n f AV - sorcery 2, witchcraft 1; 3 1) the use or the administering of drugs 2) poisoning 3) sorcery, magical arts, often found in connection with idolatry and fostered by it 4) metaph. the deceptions and seductions of idolatry

 

 

Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

 

MAJOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL SYMBOLS

1. The one snake on a staff symbol is called the serpent of Epidaurus on the staff of Aesculapius, and can be seen in the bottom left quarter of the shield on the crest of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Aesculapius was one of the Greek Gods of medicine, and is usually depicted carrying a staff with a snake coiled around it. The snake was a symbol of wisdom, immortality and healing in Middle and far Eastern cultures far older than that of ancient Greece, although its association with Aesculapius has been attributed to snakes used at a temple dedicated to him in Epidaurus in the north eastern Peloponnese. This symbol is often considered particularly suitable for pharmacy. [notice the snake in the lower left-hand corner of the shield!]

 

2. The bowl with a snake coiled around it is called the bowl of Hygeia with the serpent of Epidaurus, and is a variant on the above. Hygeia was Aesculapius' daughter and a Greek Goddess of health . Her symbol was a serpent drinking from a bowl. The vessel is usually depicted with a long stem and a shallow, wide bowl as seen here. It also is considered suitable for pharmacy. The bowl of Hygeia with serpent of Epidaurus shown here is the symbol for Hungarian pharmacists.

 

3. The symbol of two snakes on a staff is called the Caduceus. The staff, depicted with wings, is that of Mercury (Roman) or Hermes (Greek), messenger of the Gods and also God of commerce. (The Greek root of the word Caduceus means "herald's wand"). The history and meaning of this symbol is complicated. In the West it has been adopted as a symbol of medicine since the 19th century, probably because of its similarity to the serpent of Epidaurus on the staff of Aesculapius. It is generally considered less suitable for pharmacy than the one snake motif, but is more popular for use as a general medical symbol. The Caduceus shown here is from the 1888 Chambers Encyclopaedia

 

4. The serpent around a palm tree symbol is used by French and Portuguese pharmaceutical bodies, and was introduced in the 19th century. The snake is associated with healing, as discussed above, but here has a more specific meaning. The palm tree represents the vegetable kingdom, the serpent the animal kingdom, and the rocks at the palm tree's base the mineral kingdom. The serpent and palm tree shown here is the design used by the Portuguese Order of Pharmacists.

8. The recipe sign appears at the start of prescriptions. Although universally accepted as an abbreviation of "recipe" (Latin for "take thou"), it has also been suggested that it is the astronomical sign of the planet Jupiter.

http://www.rpsgb.org.uk/pdfs/mussheet13.pdf

 

**

The Pharmacratic Inquisition! [This Gnostic presentation is not for everyone, and may be highly disturbing. View at your own risk.] http://www.pharmacratic-inquisition.com/main/?&MMN_position=15:15

 

Text Box: Revelation 21:8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers [pharmakeus], and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.

 

 

 

 

History of the Bowl of Hygeia Award

Editor's note: This article was prepared by Jared Savage, the first Bowl of Hygeia Summer Intern for Wyeth and the American Pharmaceutical Association.

This summer I had a wonderful experience serving as the first Bowl of Hygeia Summer Intern for Wyeth and the American Pharmaceutical Association. In this capacity, I dedicated three months to the historical research of the Bowl of Hygeia Award. It is now my honor to present a summary of my findings to you.

What is the Bowl of Hygeia?

The pharmacy profession has used numerous symbols over the past centuries. These symbols include, but are not limited to, the mortar and pestle, the Rx sign, various alchemical symbols, the show globe, the green cross, the salamander, "A" for apothecary (Apotheke), and the Bowl of Hygeia.

The Bowl of Hygeia is the most widely recognized international symbol for the profession of pharmacy today. Several sources indicate that the symbol may have been used as an emblem of St. John dating back to first century a.d. This is based on the legend that a trophy containing poison was offered to the apostle. There is also speculation that the Bowl of Hygeia was used as a symbol for the apothecaries of Italy in 1222, since they used this emblem during the celebration of the 700th anniversary of the founding of the University of Padua.

However, no proof has been found to substantiate either of these claims. We do know that the Bowl of Hygeia was associated with pharmacy as early as 1796, when the symbol was used on a coin minted for the Parisian Society of Pharmacy.

The Bowl of Hygeia originated from Greek mythology and is universally depicted as a snake wrapped in one manner or another around a bowl. Aesculapius (pronounced Es-Kah-Lay-Pi-Ous and sometimes spelled Asklepios) was the Greek god of medicine and healing. He was the son of Apollo, who was the son of Zeus. Zeus became afraid that Aesculapius would render all men immortal because of his healing power, so he killed him with a thunderbolt.

Temples were built for Aesculapius, and harmless serpents were found inside. These serpents appeared dead because they were stiff. However, when picked up and dropped, they slithered away. The people at that time thought the serpents were brought back to life by the healing powers of Aesculapius, which ultimately caused them to become the symbol of healing.

Hygeia, the daughter of Aesculapius and the goddess of health, is usually depicted with a serpent around her arm and a bowl in her hand because she tended to the temples containing these snakes. We have since separated the serpent and the bowl from Hygeia, and this has become the internationally recognized symbol of pharmacy. Now the bowl represents a medicinal potion, and the snake represents healing. Healing through medicine is precisely why pharmacy has adopted the Bowl of Hygeia symbol. APhA adopted the Bowl of Hygeia as its symbol to represent the pharmacy profession in 1964.
http://www.drugtopics.com/drugtopics/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=116727

 

 

**

The origin begins with the mythical all-powerful Zeus ' the supreme ruler of Mount Olympus and of the Pantheon of gods who resided there. Zeus had a son named Apollo, another god with many roles, including those related to prophecy, music, light and medicine. Apollo, in turn, had a son named Aesculapius (pronounced Es-Kah-Lay-Pi-Us and sometimes spelled Asklepios) who became the Greek god of medicine and healing.

This is where the story gets interesting.

Zeus became afraid that Aesculapius would render all men immortal because of his healing power. Because of this fear, Zeus killed him with a thunderbolt. Mortals then built temples to honor Aesculapius. But soon, harmless serpents were found inside. These serpents initially appeared dead because they were rigid. However, when handled and dropped to the ground, they miraculously slithered away.

At that time the people believed the serpents were brought back to life by the healing powers of Aesculapius ' ultimately the reason he became the symbol of healing.

Hygeia (pronounced Hi-j'-a), the daughter of Aesculapius, was the goddess of health. The word "hygiene" originates from Hygeia. She was responsible for maintaining the temples containing these serpents. Over time, she came to be depicted with a serpent around her arm and a bowl in her hand.

The Bowl of Hygeia has been associated directly with the pharmacy profession since 1796. In that year, the symbol was used on a coin minted for the Parisian Society of Pharmacy. Since then, the bowl has come to represent a medicinal potion, while the serpent is associated with healing. This idea of "healing through medicine" is the reason the pharmacy profession has adopted the Bowl of Hygeia symbol. To further solidify its place in history, the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) adopted the Bowl of Hygeia as its symbol to represent the pharmacy profession in 1964.
http://www.wyeth.com/aboutwyeth/citizenship/companyawards/bowlofhygeia

 

 

Galatians 5:19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, 20 Idolatry, witchcraft [pharmakia], hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,

 

Caduceus/Kerykeion

Info from Wikipedia:
A caduceus ("kerykeion" in Greek) is a staff with two snakes wrapped around it. It was a symbol of commerce and is associated with the Greek god Hermes, the messenger for the gods, creator of magical incantations, conductor of the dead and protector of merchants and thieves. It was originally a herald's staff, sometimes with wings, with two white ribbons attached. The ribbons eventually evolved into snakes in the figure-eight shape.

In the seventh century, the caduceus came to be associated with a precursor of medicine, alchemy, based on the Hermetic spells. The caduceus is used interchangeably with the Rod of Asclepius, especially in the
United States. Historically, the two symbols had distinct and unrelated meanings. Occasionally the caduceus may be combined with a DNA double-helix, which the intertwined snakes coincidentally resemble.

Its origins are thought to be as early as 2600 BC in
Mesopotamia. It was used by the priests in the Eleusinian Mysteries of ancient Greece, and has been associated with the Gnostic Corpus Hermeticum and Kundalini Yoga, where it is thought to be a symbolic representation of the "subtle" nerve channels the "ida", "pingala", and "sushumna" described in yogic kundalini physiology.

The Legend

An ancient Greek legend tells of how the god Hermes came upon two serpents engaged in mortal combat. When placing his magical (winged) wand between them the serpents became entwined and were restored to harmony'.

Symbolism

Blue: peace, tranquility, calm, stability, harmony, unity, trust, truth, confidence, conservatism, security, cleanliness, order, loyalty, sky, water, cold, technology, depression, appetite suppressant. Also, symbolism by culture: China - associated with immortality; Colombia - associated with soap; Hindus - the color of Krishna; Jews - holiness; Middle East - protective color; blue is often considered to be the safest global color.
Green: nature, environment, healthy, good luck, renewal, youth, vigor, spring, generosity, fertility, jealousy, inexperience, envy, misfortune. Also, symbolism by culture: China - studies indicate this is not a good color choice for packaging, green hats mean a man's wife is cheating on him; France - studies indicate this is not a good color choice for packaging; India - the color of Islam; Ireland - religious significance (Catholic); Some tropical countries - associated with danger; United States - indicates go (safe) at traffic lights, environmental awareness, St. Patrick's Day, Christmas color (red and green).
Snake: strength, protection, rebirth. In Western societies the snake is seen as evil. In Eastern mythologies the snake (or serpent) is a symbol for healing, new life. A snake may symbolize sexuality; psychic energy, or the power of Nature; intuitive wisdom; the unconscious.
Caduceus: The ancient Greeks believed it to exercise influence over the living and the dead, bestow wealth and prosperity, and turn everything it touched into gold. They called it Kerykeion, 'herald's wand'
it was the emblem of heralds and ambassadors, giving them power and inviolability. While the rod represents power, the serpents symbolize wisdom.

In the book of Revelation, Yahweh warns of the grip pharmakia will hold over societies...forcing itself upon everyone. Most will simply capitulate, failing to resist, thus not repenting of their sorceries. Paul also warns...

1 Timothy 4:1 Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;

What are you "giving heed" to..."seducing spirits and doctrines of devils"...or Almighty Yahweh? It's your choice!

Sources: X, #HYPERLINK "http://www.mythsdreamssymbols.com/dssnake.html"X, #HYPERLINK "http://theosophy.org/tlodocs/symbols/CaduceusThe-0875.htm"X.

Imagery

Caduceus in Alchemy: X
Caduceus and the Chakras: X
Caduceus vs DNA: X
Caduceus in Tarot Cards: Marseilles Tarot//Marseilles Tarot - version//Mantegna Tarot
Caduceus in cultures other than Greek or Roman: Mesoamerican//Assyrian//Sumerian

http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view?back=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%3Fei%3DUTF-8%26p%3DCaduceus&w=300&h=300&imgurl=img337.imageshack.us%2Fimg337%2F1606%2Fcaduceusalch2iz.gif&size=11&name=caduceusalch2iz.gif&rcurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.freewebs.com%2Fkerukeion%2Fcaduceus.html&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.freewebs.com%2Fkerukeion%2Fcaduceus.html&p=Caduceus&type=gif&no=1&tt=22%2C283